The fishery products and bivalve mollusks sector is certainly one of the most complex in term of sanitary and commercial topics, considering the high number of species that require a precise identification. For all these reasons, the knowledge and the skills in this field remain prerogative of a few experts on the subject and operators who, in time and for various reasons, have acquired specific knowledge and skills. On the other hand, the evolution of community legislation, and especially the growing worldwide interest for fishery products and bivalve mollusks, requires a common system of traceability and labeling aimed at increasing the transparency in commercial transactions, facilitating the identification of the fish and mollusks species and increasing consumer confidence. In this perspective, the proposed publication stands as an easy reference tool intended for all the stakeholders involved in the Mediterranean seafood chain, and in which some essential elements of the community rules relating to inspection and control of fishery products and bivalve mollusks are revealed. The presence of illustrations will represent a quick and easy way to acquire the essential information to identify the main Mediterranean fishery products and bivalve mollusks of commercial interest.