This book brings before the readers’ eyes the work of a group of dedicated researchers whose interest lies in moral philosophy and applied ethics. The contributors had the liberty to choose the application fields and the examples that best illustrate their arguments. Nevertheless, they all put the main stress on two issues which seems to be the key to understand many of the today’s bioethical challenges: the autonomy claim and the question of moral responsibility arising in various fields of applied medical research. The book addresses some classical questions such as: what is the meaning of autonomy? What justifies it? How come infringements against the autonomy claim make sense sometimes? How do we recognize overriding moral demands? Still, these questions are far from being fully answered here.